Treatment of Cardiac Transthyretin Amyloidosis
- Emdin M, Aimo A, Rapezzi C, et al.
- Treatment of Cardiac Transthyretin Amyloidosis: An Update. Eur Heart J 2019;40:3699-3706.
The following are key points to remember from this update on the treatment of cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis:
- Transthyretin (TTR) is a highly conserved protein involved in transportation of thyroxine (T4) and retinol-binding protein. TTR is synthesized mostly by the liver and is rich in beta strands with an intrinsic propensity to aggregate into insoluble amyloid fibers, which deposit within tissue leading to the development of TTR-related amyloidosis (ATTR). ATTR can follow the deposition of either variant TTR (ATTRv, previously known as mutant ATTR) or wild type TTR (ATTRwt).
- Cardiac ATTR has a favorable survival rate compared to light chain (AL) amyloidosis, with a median survival of 75 versus 11 months. However, ATTR cardiomyopathy is a progressive disorder but newer therapeutic options include tafamidis (positive phase 3 clinical trial), and possibly patisiran and inotersen.
Inhibition of the Synthesis of Mutated Transthyretin
- Liver transplantation removes the source of mutated TTR molecules and prolongs survival, with a 20-year survival of 55.3%. However, tissue accumulation of TTR can continue after liver transplantation because TTR amyloid fibers promote subsequent deposition of ATTRwt. Combined liver–heart transplantation is feasible in younger patients with ATTRv cardiomyopathy and a small series suggests better prognosis than cardiac transplantation.
- Inhibition of TTR gene expression: Patisiran is a small interfering RNA blocking the expression of both variant and wt TTR. On the basis of the APOLLO trial, it was approved for therapy of adults with ATTRv-related polyneuropathy both in the United States and European Union. In this trial, patisiran promoted favorable myocardial remodeling based on echocardiographic and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-BNP) changes (this effect was not demonstrated for inotersen) and is still under investigation for tafamidis.
- Antisense oligonucleotides inotersen inhibits the production of both variant and wt TTR. Based on the findings of the NEURO-TTR trial, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved this agent for patients with ATTRv-related polyneuropathy. In the NEURO-TTR trial, cardiomyopathy was present in 63%, but the study was not powered to measure effects of inotersen on heart disease. Inotersen can cause thrombocytopenia and must be used cautiously with bleeding risk.
- Selective stabilizers include tafamidis and AG10. Tafamidis is a benzoxazole and a small molecule that inhibits the dissociation of TTR tetramers by binding the T4-binding sites. The phase ATTR-ACT study showed that when comparing the pooled tafamidis arms (80 and 20 mg) with the placebo arm, tafamidis was associated with lower all-cause mortality than placebo (78 of 264 [29.5%] vs. 76 of 177 [42.9%]; hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.96) and a lower rate of cardiovascular hospitalizations. Based on the results of the ATTR-ACT trial, it has received Breakthrough Therapy designation from the FDA for treatment of ATTR cardiomyopathy.
- Nonselective agents: Diflunisal, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is reported to stabilize TTR tetramers. More studies are needed to confirm its clinical efficacy.
Inhibition of Oligomer Aggregation and Oligomer Disruption
- Epigallocatechin gallate is the most abundant catechin in green tea. One single-center open-label 12-month study did not show survival benefits or any change in echocardiographic parameters or NT-BNP compared to baseline.
Degradation and Reabsorption of Amyloid Fibers
- Doxycycline-taurosodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) has been evaluated in two small studies and the results appear to be modest. More data are needed to confirm its efficacy.
- Antibodies targeting serum amyloid P protein or amyloid fibrils: Patient enrollment for miridesap followed by anti-SAP antibodies was suspended, and this approach is not being evaluated currently. However, a monoclonal antibody designed to specifically target TTR amyloid deposits (PRX004) has entered clinical evaluation, with an ongoing phase 1 study on ATTRv.
Supportive Treatment of Cardiac Involvement
- Drug therapies: Although angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) and beta-blockers may have been poorly tolerated in the ATTR-ACT trial, 30% of the patients were on ACE inhibitors/ARBs. There are no data with digoxin in TTR amyloid, and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers are contraindicated due to negative inotropy.
- Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs): In one study, which included 53 patients with amyloid, ICD shocks occurred exclusively in the AL amyloid group and none in the TTR amyloid patients. Higher defibrillation thresholds and complication rates are of concern.
- Cardiac pacing: In a large series of ATTRv-related polyneuropathy (n = 262), a pacemaker was implanted in 110 patients with His ventricular interval >700 ms. The authors recommend that any conduction disturbance on 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) warrants further investigation with Holter monitoring to determine candidacy for a pacemaker.
- Left ventricular assist device (LVAD): Although an LVAD is technically feasible, it is associated with high short-term mortality and worse outcomes than in dilated cardiomyopathy.
- Cardiac transplantation: This is a valuable option for patients with end-stage heart failure when significant extracardiac disease is excluded. In one study with 10 patients, only episodes of amyloid recurrence occurred.
This is an outstanding overview of this topic and recommended reading for anyone who cares for patients with cardiac transthyretin amyloid.
Clinical Topics: Arrhythmias and Clinical EP, Cardiac Surgery, Cardiovascular Care Team, Heart Failure and Cardiomyopathies, Invasive Cardiovascular Angiography and Intervention, Noninvasive Imaging, Implantable Devices, SCD/Ventricular Arrhythmias, Cardiac Surgery and Arrhythmias, Cardiac Surgery and Heart Failure, Acute Heart Failure, Heart Transplant, Mechanical Circulatory Support, Interventions and Imaging, Echocardiography/Ultrasound
Keywords: Amyloid, Amyloidosis, Cardiomyopathies, Defibrillators, Echocardiography, Heart-Assist Devices, Heart Failure, Heart Transplantation, Liver Transplantation, Pacemaker, Artificial, Thrombocytopenia
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