Study Shows High Prevalence of Diabetes and HTN in India

The prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in India is high across all geographical settings and socioeconomic groups in middle and old age, according to a study published Jan. 29 in JAMA: Internal Medicine.

Pascal Geldsetzer, MBChB, et al., conducted a population-based study of 1,320,555 adults 18 years or older in India, and examined the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension by location and individual-level sociodemographic characteristics between 2012 and 2014. Diabetes was defined as having a plasma glucose level of 126 mg/dL if the participant had fasted or 200 mg/dL if the participant had not fasted, and hypertension was defined as having a systolic blood pressure (BP) of 140 mmHg or diastolic BP of 90 mmHg.

Results showed that the crude prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was 7.5 percent (95 percent confidence interval (CI), 7.3 – 7.7 percent) and 25.3 percent (95 percent CI, 25.0 – 25.6 percent) among both men and women, respectively. Notably, hypertension was common among the younger age group (18 – 25 years: 12.1 percent; 95 percent CI, 11.8 – 12.5 percent).

The authors also found that when comparing the richest household wealth quintile with the poorest, there was only a slightly higher probability of diabetes and hypertension. Additionally, when observing level of education, differences in the prevalence of both conditions were small.

The authors conclude that moving forward, it is important for India to target diabetes and hypertension prevention, screening and treatment programs to those most in need. They add, "Given the size, growth, rapid urbanization, and aging of India's population, as well as the high levels of impoverishing health care expenditures caused by [noncommunicable diseases], the country's success in tackling its diabetes and hypertension epidemic will be crucial to achieving Sustainable Development Goals globally."

Clinical Topics: Heart Failure and Cardiomyopathies, Prevention, Hypertension

Keywords: Blood Pressure, Blood Glucose, Prevalence, Urbanization, Health Expenditures, Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, India, Systole, Conservation of Natural Resources, Educational Status, Probability

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