The views and opinions expressed are those of the contributing authors and editors and do not necessarily represent the views of the American College of Cardiology (ACC). Specific therapies discussed may not be approved and/or specified for use as indicated. The material is not intended to present the only, or necessarily best, methods or procedures for the medical situations addressed, but rather is intended to represent an approach, view, statement or opinion.

Some drugs, medical devices or therapies reflected in the material may not have been cleared by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or have been cleared for specific uses only. The FDA has stated that it is the responsibility of the physician to determine the FDA clearance status of each drug or device he or she wishes to use in clinical practice. Therefore, before prescribing any medication, please review the complete prescribing information including indications, contraindications, warnings, precautions and adverse effects.

In addition, any statements about commercial products are solely the opinion(s) of the author(s) and do not represent an ACC endorsement or evaluation of these products. These statements should not be used in advertising or for any commercial purpose.