Relation Between Soluble ST2, Growth Differentiation Factor–15, and High-Sensitivity Troponin I and Incident Atrial Fibrillation

Study Questions:

Are soluble ST2, growth differentiation factor–15 (GDF-15), and high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI) associated with incident atrial fibrillation (AF), and do these biomarkers improve current risk prediction models for AF?