Timing of Surgery in Infective Endocarditis

Kang DH.
Timing of Surgery in Infective Endocarditis. Heart 2015;101:1786-1791.

Early surgery is recommended for patients with complicated infective endocarditis (IE), but data from randomized trials are scarce. The following are points to remember about the timing of surgery among patients with IE:

  1. The main indications for early surgery in IE are heart failure, uncontrolled infection, and prevention of embolization. The reduction in mortality with surgery is greatest among patients with IE and moderate to severe heart failure.
  2. Heart failure. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guideline (2009) recommends emergent surgery for heart failure with refractory pulmonary edema or cardiogenic shock (Class I), or urgent surgery for persistent heart failure with signs of poor hemodynamic tolerance (Class IIa). The American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) guideline (2014) recommends early surgery for valve dysfunction causing heart failure (Class I).
  3. Uncontrolled infection. The ESC guideline recommends urgent surgery (Class I) for evidence of uncontrolled infection defined as either abscess, fistula, or pseudoaneurysm; or for an enlarging vegetation, persistent fever, or positive blood cultures after 7-10 days of appropriate therapy. The AHA/ACC guideline recommends early surgery (Class I) for evidence of persistent infection, heart block or abscess, or a resistant organism (S. aureus, fungi).
  4. Prevention of embolization. The ESC guideline recommends urgent surgery for a vegetation >10 mm with previous embolization or other surgical indication (Class I), or for isolated vegetation >15 mm and feasible valve repair (Class IIb). The AHA/ACC guideline recommends early surgery for recurrent emboli and persistent vegetations despite appropriate antibiotic therapy (Class IIa); or a large mobile vegetation on a native valve (Class IIb).
  5. Neurological complications. Patients with a neurological complication may have other indications for early surgery. However, early surgery may pose a significant risk for perioperative neurological deterioration (related to anticoagulation potentiating the risk of intracerebral bleeding, and to hypotension during cardiopulmonary bypass aggravating neurological ischemia and edema).
  6. Prosthetic valve IE. Prosthetic valve endocarditis is the most serious form of IE, and more difficult to treat using antibiotics alone. In general, current guidelines support consideration of a surgical strategy for high-risk subgroups with prosthetic valve IE, including patients with heart failure, abscess, or persistent fever.
  7. Definitions of early surgery. There is no consensus as to the optimal timing of early surgery. The ESC guideline classifies surgical indications in IE as emergent (within 24 hours), urgent (within a few days), and elective (after 1-2 weeks of antibiotic therapy). The AHA/ACC guideline defines early surgery as occurring during the initial hospitalization and before completion of a full therapeutic course of antibiotics.

Clinical Topics: Cardiac Surgery, Heart Failure and Cardiomyopathies, Invasive Cardiovascular Angiography and Intervention, Prevention, Valvular Heart Disease, Cardiac Surgery and Arrhythmias, Cardiac Surgery and Heart Failure, Cardiac Surgery and VHD, Acute Heart Failure, Interventions and Structural Heart Disease

Keywords: Anti-Bacterial Agents, Cardiac Surgical Procedures, Cardiopulmonary Bypass, Edema, Endocarditis, Endocarditis, Bacterial, Heart Failure, Heart Valve Diseases, Pulmonary Edema, Secondary Prevention, Shock, Cardiogenic, Staphylococcus aureus

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