ACC wishes to thank the editors, authors and question writers who make ACCSAP possible:

Patrick T. O'Gara, MD, MACC

CMP Editor-in-Chief:
Patrick T. O'Gara, MD, MACC

Vera Bittner, MD, FACC

ACCSAP Editor-in-Chief:
Vera Bittner, MD, FACC

Julia H. Indik, MD, PhD, FACC

CMP Performance Question Editor-in-Chief:
Julia H. Indik, MD, PhD, FACC

Donna M. Polk, MD, MPH, FACC

CMP Practice Question Editor-in-Chief:
Donna M. Polk, MD, MPH, FACC

Jane A. Linderbaum, MS, ARNP, FACC

CMP SAP NP/PA Editor:
Jane A. Linderbaum, MS, ARNP, FACC

Arrhythmias Topic Editor
Peter A. Brady, MB, CHB, FACC  
 
Arrhythmias Topic Authors
Nazem Akoum, MD, FACC Susan S. Kim, MD, FACC
Adrian M. Baranchuk, MD, FACC Pier D. Lambiase, MD, PhD
Peter A. Brady, MB, CHB, FACC Daniel S. Modaff, MD
Jane Chen, MD, FACC Walid I. Saliba, MD, FACC
Andres Enriquez, MD Dan Sorajja, MD, FACC
Mitchell N. Faddis MD, PhD, FACC Win-Kuang Shen, MD, FACC
Benedict Glover, MD Nishant Verma, MD, MPH
Zachary D. Goldberger, MD, FACC Paul J. Wang, MD, FACC
Blair P. Grubb, MD, FACC
 
Coronary Artery Disease Topic Editor
David A. Morrow, MD, MPH, FACC  
 
Coronary Artery Disease Topic Authors
C. Noel Bairey Merz, MD, FACC David F. Kong, MD, AM, FACC
Subhash Banerjee, MD, FACC Amir Lerman, MD
David D. Berg, MD, FACC John A. McPherson, MD, FACC
Erin A. Bohula, MD, Dphil Venu Menon, MBBS, FACC
Emmanouil S. Brilakis, MD, PhD, FACC David A. Morrow, MD, MPH, FACC
Marcelo F. Di Carli, MD, FACC L. Kristin Newby, MD, MHS
William F. Fearon, MD, FACC Vivian Ng, MD, FACC
Peter Ganz, MD Michelle L. O'Donoghue, MD, MPH
Michael C. Gavin , MD, MPH, FACC Carl J. Pepine, MD, MACC
Robert P Giugliano, MD, SM, FACC Benjamin M. Scirica, MD, MPH, FACC
Paul A. Gurbel, MD, FACC, FSCAI, FAHA Nathaniel R. Smilowitz, MD
Elias V. Haddad, MD, FACC Udaya S. Tantry, PhD
Akshay Khandelwal MD, FACC, FSCAI Viviany R. Taqueti, MD, MPH, FACC
Henry E. Kim, MD, MPH, FACC R. Jay Widmer, MD, PhD
Ajay J. Kirtane MD, SM, FACC Robert W. Yeh, MD, MSc, FACC
 
Heart Failure and Cardiomyopathy Topic Editor
Akshay S. Desai, MD, MPH, FACC  
 
Heart Failure and Cardiomyopathy Topic Authors
Maya H. Barghash, MD Raja Kannan Mutharasan, MD
Barry Borlaug, MD, FACC Anju Nohria, MD
Leslie T. Cooper, MD, FACC Michael W. Rich, MD, FACC
Mark H. Drazner MD, FACC Kavita Sharma, MD
Marat Fudim, MD, MHS, FACC Jeffrey Teuteberg, MD, FACC
Michael M. Givertz, MD, FACC Jennifer Thibodeau, MD, MScs
Neal K. Lakdawala, MD Justin M. Vader, MD, FACC
Melissa A. Lyle, MD Haider Warraich, MD
 
Valvular Disease Topic Editor
Wendy Tsang, MD, FACC  
 
Valvular Disease Topic Authors
Dabit Arzamendi, MD, MS, PhD Stephen H. Little, MD, FACC
Thomas M. Bashore, MD, FACC Anuj Mediratta, MD
Mohammed A. Chamsi-Pasha, MD, FACC Xavier Millán, MD, PhD
Andrew M. Cheng, MD Igor F. Palacios, MD, FACC
Doreen DeFaria Yeh, MD, FACC Basel Ramlawi, MD, FACC
Estefanía Fernández Peregrina, MD Vera H. Rigolin, MD, FACC
Linda D. Gillam, MD, MPH, FACC Vincent Sorrell, MD, FACC, FASE
Homam Ibrahim, MD Andrew Wang, MD, FACC
Priya Kohli, MD, MPH, FACC Mathew R. Williams, MD, FACC
John Kotter, MD
 
Pericardial Disease Topic Editor
Terrence Welch, MD, FACC  
 
Pericardial Disease Topic Authors
Patrick Collier, MD, PhD Massimo Imazio, MD
Paul C. Cremer, MD, CM, FACC Alan Klein, MD, FACC
Brian D. Hoit, MD, FACC
 
Congenital Heart Disease Topic Editor
Eric V. Krieger, MD, FACC  
 
Congenital Heart Disease Topic Authors
Alan C. Braverman, MD, FACC Todd L. Kiefer, MD, FACC
Yonatan Buber, MD, FACC Richard A. Krasuski, MD, FACC
Marc G. Cribbs , MD, FACC Anne Marie Valente, MD, FACC
Joanna Ghobrial, MD, MSc
 
Vascular Diseases Topic Editor
Ido Weinberg, MD, MSc, FACC  
 
Vascular Diseases Topic Authors
Geoffrey D. Barnes, MD, MSc, FACC Vladimir Lakhter, DO
Minakshi Biswas, MD Eli Miloslavsky, MD
Samih W. Bittar, MD R. Kevin Rogers, MD, MSc, RPVI
Andrew Galmer, DO Rahul Sakhuja, MD, MPP, MSc, FACC
Stanislav Henkin, MD, FACC Mitchell D. Weinberg, MD
Siva S. Ketha, MBBS Hai Xu, MD
Raghu Kolluri, MBBS, FACC
 
Systemic Hypertension and Hypotension Topic Editor
Clive Rosendorff, MD, PHD, FACC  
 
Systemic Hypertension and Hypotension Topic Authors
Italo Biaggioni, MD Clive Rosendorff, MD, PhD, FACC
James A. Muldowney III, MD
 
Pulmonary Circulation Disorders Topic Editor
Vallerie V. McLaughlin, MD, FACC  
 
Pulmonary Circulation Disorders Topic Authors
Geoffrey D. Barnes, MD, MSc, FACC Anna Hemnes, MD
Thomas Cascino, MD, MSc Nick H. Kim, MD
Richard N. Channick, MD Mardi Gomberg-Maitland, MD, MSc, FACC
Robert P. Frantz, MD, FACC Jonathan D. Rich, MD
 
Systemic Disorders Affecting the Circulatory System Topic Editor
John A. McPherson, MD, FACC  
 
Systemic Disorders Affecting the Circulatory System Topic Authors
Aaron W. Aday, MD, MSc Brittain F. Heindl, MD
David Aguilar, MD Stanislav Henkin, MD, FACC
Nathan E. Ashby, MD T. Alp Ikizler, MD
Stephen Clarkson, MD Jason N. Katz, MD, MHS
Matthew J. Feinstein, MD, MSc Larry W. Markham, MD, MSCR
Matthew S. Freiberg, MD, MSc Javid Moslehi, MD
 
Prevention Topic Editor
Vijay Nambi, MBBS, FACC  
 
Prevention Topic Authors
C. Noel Bairey Merz, MD, FACC Carl E. Orringer, MD, FACC
Prakash C. Deedwania, MD, FACC Anand Rohatgi, MD, MSc, FACC
Danny J. Eapen, MD Jia Shen, MD, MPH
Martha Gulati, MD, MS, FACC Laurence Sperling, MD, FACC, FACP, FAHA, FASPC
Richard A. Josephson, MD, MS, FACC, FAHA, FACP, FAACVPR Salim S. Virani, MD, PhD
Mirza Umair Khalid, MD, PhD Nathan D. Wong, PhD, FACC
Amit Khera, MD, MSc, FACC Eugene Yang, MD, FACC
Aditya K. Khetan, MBBS
 
General Principles of Cardiovascular Medicine Topic Editor
Frederick A. Masoudi, MD, MSPH, FACC  
 
General Principles of Cardiovascular Medicine Topic Authors
Larry A. Allen, MD, MHS, FACC Elizabeth Magnuson, PhD
Lori B. Daniels, MD, MAS, FACC George A. Mensah, MD
Thomas A. Gaziano, MD, MSc, FACC
 
Miscellaneous Topics in Cardiovascular Medicine Topic Editor
Thomas S. Metkus MD, PhD, FACC  
 
Miscellaneous Topics in Cardiovascular Medicine Topic Authors
Ferhaan Ahmad, MD, PhD, FRCPC, FAHA, FACC Kathryn J. Lindley, MD, FACC
Kim A. Eagle, MD, MACC Taylor Miller, PharmD
Andrea M. Elliott, MD Debabrata Mukherjee, MD, MS, FACC
Michael S. Emery, MD, MS, FACC Joseph P. Ornato, MD, FACC
Michael V. Genuardi, MD, MS Sanjay R. Patel, MD, MS
Salim S. Hayek, MD Mary Ann Peberdy, MD, FACC
Sarah Kohnstamm, MD
 
Testing for Cardiovascular Disease Topic Editor
Scott M. Lilly, MD, PHD, FACC  
 
Testing for Cardiovascular Disease Topic Authors
Shikhar Agarwal, MD, MPH, FACC Daniella Kadian-Dodov, MD
Sripal Bangalore, MD, MHA, FACC, FAHA, FSCAI Scott Lilly, MD, PhD, FACC
Matthew J. Budoff, MD, FACC Jason Linefsky, MD, MS, FACC
Andrea Cardona, MD, PhD, FACC Jagat Narula, MD, PhD, MACC
Vasken Dilsizian, MD, FACC Saurabh Rajpal, MD, FACC
Mackram F. Eleid, MD, FACC, FSCAI Subha V. Raman, MD, FACC
Rosario Freeman, MD, MS, FACC Matthew Tong, DO, FACC
Judith Goldfinger, MD, FACC Todd C. Villines, MD, FACC
Thura T. Harfi, MD Karolina M. Zareba, MD
 
Performance Question Editor
Julia H. Indik, MD, PhD, FACC  
 
Performance Question Writers
Reza Arsanjani, MD Payal Kohli, MD, FACC
Nicole Bhave, MD, FACC Anna McDivit Mizzell, MD, FACC
Naomi F. Botkin, MD, FACC W. Michael Milks, MD, FACC
Elisa Bradley, MD, FACC James Mudd, MD
Serena Day, MD, FACC Anya Narezkina, MD
Robert T. Eberhardt, MD, FACC Maitreya Thakkar, MBBS, FACC
Jason P. Evanchan, DO, FACC Cary C. Ward, MD, FACC
Nkechinyere Ijioma, MBBS, FACC Ali N. Zaidi, MD, FACC
Dinesh H. Jagasia, MBBS, FACC
 
Practice Question Editor
Donna M. Polk, MD, MPH, FACC  
 
Practice Question Writers
Thomas M. Bashore, MD, FACC Keri M. Shafer, MD, FACC
Lorrel Brown Toft, MD, FACC Justin Sadhu, MD, FACC
Gregory A. Dadekian, MD, FACC Victor Soukoulis, MD, PhD, FACC
Jeremiah P. Depta, MD, FACC Lakshmi Suma Tummala, MD, FACC
Michelle Maya Kittleson, MD, FACC Pam Taub, MD, FACC
Brigid McKenna Carlson, MD Justin M. Vader, MD, FACC
Matthew W. Parker, MD, FACC Ralph J. Verdino, MD, FACC