Mavacamten in Adults With Symptomatic Obstructive HCM Who Are Eligible for Septal Reduction Therapy - VALOR-HCM
Contribution To Literature:
The VALOR-HCM trial showed that mavacamten improved symptoms and significantly reduced eligibility for needing septal reduction therapy (SRT) among symptomatic patients with obstructive HCM who were considering SRT and on maximally tolerated medical therapy.
The goal of the trial was to assess the safety and efficacy of adding mavacamten to maximally tolerated medical therapy among patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).
Eligible patients were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to mavacamten (n = 56) or placebo (n = 56). Mavacamten was started at a dose of 5 mg, and titrated using core laboratory measured left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient at rest and with Valsalva provocation.
- Total number of enrollees: 112
- Duration of follow-up: 16 weeks
- Mean patient age: 60 years
- Percentage female: 49%
- Age ≥18 years
- Documented HCM with maximum septal wall thickness ≥15 mm or ≥13 mm with family history of HCM (determined by a core echocardiography laboratory)
- Severe symptoms despite maximally tolerated medical therapy
- New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III/IV or class II with exertional syncope or near syncope
- Maximal medical HCM therapy could include disopyramide and/or combination beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers
- Dynamic LVOT gradient at rest or with provocation (Valsalva maneuver or exercise) ≥50 mm Hg
- Documented LVEF ≥60%
- Must have been referred within the past 12 months for SRT and actively considering scheduling the procedure
Other salient features/characteristics:
- Baseline medical therapy: beta-blockers (45%), calcium channel blockers (15%), combination (32%)
- Resting LVOT gradient: 49 mm Hg
- Post-exercise gradient: 84 mm Hg
- NYHA class III/IV: 93%
The primary endpoint, decision to proceed with SRT or guideline eligible at week 16, for mavacamten vs. placebo, was 17.9% vs. 76.8% (p < 0.0001).
- Proceeded with SRT: 3.6% vs. 3.6%
- Guideline eligible for SRT but did not proceed: 14.3% vs. 69.6%
Secondary outcomes for mavacamten vs. placebo:
- Improvement in NYHA class ≥I class: 63% vs. 21% (p < 0.05)
- Resting LVOT gradient at 16 weeks: 14 vs. 46 mm Hg (p < 0.05)
- Valsalva LVOT gradient at 16 weeks: 28 vs. 78 mm Hg (p < 0.05)
- Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ)-23 clinical summary score at 16 weeks: 80 vs. 67 (p < 0.05)
Safety outcomes for mavacamten vs. placebo:
- Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia: 0% vs. 9.1%
- Nausea: 7.1% vs. 1.8%
- No patients had chronic heart failure, syncope, or sudden cardiac death
The results of this trial indicate that mavacamten improved symptoms and significantly reduced eligibility for needing SRT among symptomatic patients with obstructive HCM who were considering SRT.
Mavacamten is a targeted inhibitor of cardiac myosin. It decreases the number of myosin-actin cross-bridges and reduces excessive contractility characteristic of HCM. In the EXPLORER-HCM trial too, mavacamten was superior to placebo in improving patient-centered outcomes. The current findings are thus complementary to that trial. Long-term data on both safety and efficacy with mavacamten, as well as any impact on clinical outcomes, are needed.
Presented by Dr. Milind Y. Desai at the American College of Cardiology Annual Scientific Session (ACC 2022), Washington, DC, April 2, 2022.
Keywords: ACC22, ACC Annual Scientific Session, Adrenergic beta-Antagonists, Calcium Channel Blockers, Cardiac Myosins, Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic, Cardiomyopathies, Death, Sudden, Cardiac, Disopyramide, Heart Failure, Stroke Volume, Syncope, Tachycardia, Ventricular, Valsalva Maneuver, Ventricular Function, Left
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