Empagliflozin Outcome Trial in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure and a Reduced Ejection Fraction - EMPEROR-Reduced
Contribution To Literature:
The EMPEROR-Reduced trial showed that empagliflozin is superior to placebo in improving HF outcomes among patients with symptomatic stable HFrEF (EF ≤40%) on excellent baseline GDMT, irrespective of diabetes status.
The goal of the trial was to assess the safety and efficacy of empagliflozin in patients with symptomatic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), irrespective of diabetes status.
Patients were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to either empagliflozin 10 mg (n = 1,863) or matching placebo (n = 1,867). All the patients were receiving appropriate treatments for heart failure.
- Total screened: 7,220
- Total number of enrollees: 3730
- Duration of follow-up: 16 months (median)
- Mean patient age: 67 years
- Percentage female: 24%
- Age ≥18 years
- Chronic HF, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II/III/IV
- Left ventricular EF (LVEF) ≤40%
- HF hospitalization within 12 months
- N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP ≥600 pg/ml if EF ≤30%; ≥1000 pg/ml if EF 31-35%; ≥2500 pg/ml if EF >35%
- If concomitant atrial fibrillation, then above thresholds were doubled)
- Acute coronary syndrome, stroke, or transient ischemic attack (TIA) within 90 days
- Listed for orthotopic heart transplantation, currently implanted LV assist device (LVAD)
- Cardiomyopathy based on infiltrative/accumulation diseases, muscular dystrophies, reversible causes, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, pericardial restriction, peripartum, cardiomyopathy caused by chemotherapy within 12 months
- Severe valvular heart disease
- Acute decompensated HF
- Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) within 3 months
Other salient features/characteristics:
- White 70%, Asian 18%
- North America: 11%, Europe: 36%, Asia: 13%, Latin America: 34%
- NYHA functional class II: 75%
- Mean LVEF: 27%
- Type 2 diabetes: 50%
- Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60: 48%
- Medications: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin-receptor blocker: 70%, angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor: 19%, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist: 71%, beta-blocker: 94%
- ICD: 31%, CRT 12%
The primary outcome, cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization, for empagliflozin vs. placebo, was 19.4% vs. 24.7% (hazard ratio [HR] 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-0.86, p < 0.001)
- Cardiovascular death: 10% vs. 10.8% (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.75-1.12)
- HF hospitalization: 13.2% vs. 18.3% (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.59-0.81)
- Total hospitalizations: 388 vs. 553 (p < 0.001)
- Composite renal outcome (chronic hemodialysis, renal transplantation, profound sustained reduction in eGFR): 1.6 vs. 3.1 (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.32-0.77, p < 0.01)
- All-cause mortality: 13.4% vs. 14.2% (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.77-1.10, p > 0.05)
- New-onset type 2 diabetes among patients with prediabetes: 11.2% vs. 12.6% (p > 0.05)
- Change in hemoglobin A1c between baseline and week 52 (patients with diabetes): -0.28 vs. -0.12% (p < 0.05)
- Systolic blood pressure -2.4 vs. -1.7 mm Hg (p > 0.05)
- Confirmed hypoglycemic event: 1.4% vs. 1.5%
The results of this trial indicate that empagliflozin is superior to placebo in improving HF outcomes among patients with symptomatic stable HFrEF (EF ≤40%) on excellent baseline guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT), irrespective of diabetes status. Benefit is primarily driven by a reduction in HF hospitalizations. There was also a benefit in renal outcomes. This is a very important trial, and mirrors similar findings from the DAPA-HF trial for dapagliflozin. Even patients with severe LV dysfunction appeared to benefit.
Even though the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors were introduced as type 2 diabetes management drugs, the results of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial and others indicated a clear benefit in HF management. This trial enrolled a dedicated HF population, and conclusively shows a benefit in this patient population, irrespective of diabetes status. These drugs will likely have a prominent role in future HF management guidelines.
Packer M, Anker SD, Butler J, et al., on behalf of the EMPEROR-Reduced Trial Investigators. Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes With Empagliflozin in Heart Failure. N Engl J Med 2020;Aug 29:[Epub ahead of print].
Editorial: Jarcho JA. More Evidence for SGLT2 Inhibitors in Heart Failure. N Engl J Med 2020;Aug 29:[Epub ahead of print].
Presented by Dr. Milton Packer at the European Society of Cardiology Virtual Congress, August 29, 2020.
Clinical Topics: Arrhythmias and Clinical EP, Diabetes and Cardiometabolic Disease, Heart Failure and Cardiomyopathies, Prevention, Implantable Devices, SCD/Ventricular Arrhythmias, Atrial Fibrillation/Supraventricular Arrhythmias, Acute Heart Failure, Heart Failure and Cardiac Biomarkers
Keywords: ESC Congress, ESC20, Atrial Fibrillation, Blood Pressure, Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Heart Failure, Defibrillators, Implantable, Metabolic Syndrome X, Natriuretic Peptide, Brain, Renal Insufficiency, Secondary Prevention, Stroke Volume
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